The Poliomelitis

The poliomelitis is an illness infecciosovírica that affect the children fundamentally, although with pettier frequency it also attacks the adults. You appear in epidemic buds in some countries and in form endemoepidémica in others. Such variances depend on the state inmunitario of a population in front of the infection for the virus of the poliomelitis.

This illness, you are caused by a virus that infect the organism through human-to-human transmissions or for via insinuation, when they act as vehicle the liquids that the man uses in your to live quotidian. These liquids, such as the water, the milk, among other, they can be infected by the own man or for waste waters that infect the conditions of drinking water. The human-to-human propagation of the virus through seemingly healthy individuals is explained by the following facts: the virus penetrates in the organism for via digestive and you nest in the pharynx and, especially, in the intestine, where you reproduce extraordinarily and you are deleted by means of the feces. You originate an illness of pharyngeal or digestive determinism, and only by one percent of the polluted ones it causes paralysis. In the remaining ones, the illness decreases to some bare anginas or an intestinal dysfunction that it cure spontaneously. The individual that have suffered this infection, is definitively immunized, because you have been formed in him a rate of enough antibodies to exercise an attestation and you activate protection. This status antigénica is the one that also believe the vaccination antipoliomielítica. The ingestion of repeated vaccine dose for virus inactivado believes a state of practically permanent defence. The inyeción of dead (bovine Salk) virus determines a reaction inmunitaria equally, although less active and durable than the vaccination for via oral type Sabin.

The contamination of a not vaccinated person, unchains an illness that begin clinically, after a period of incubation of 10 or 12 days, with anginas or digestive dysfunctions, accompanied by thermal slight elevation. In the forms non paralytics, the clinical box is reduced to this symptomatology, so not very characteristic. In the paralyzed forms they are added to the mentioned dysfunctions two clinical absolutely characteristic symptoms: fever (with elevations between 38 and 39º), and pain (localized in the extremities so much higher as inferior and you increase during the mobilization attempts) .Aparecen the espamos and muscle cramps, extremely painful and of progressive path. This period, called preparalítico, you are characterized by pain and fever whose duration is of 2 or 3 days and that you end in the paralyzed period, during which the muscular typical paralyses are set up that can affect to any muscle group, although preferably, to the inferior extremities. In occasions, the paralyzed muscles are the intercostal ones and others that have had made the pulmonary ventilation, with that which the calls respiratory forms of the infantile paralysis are constituted.

The path of the poliomelitis can be very desfavorabe, especially when the calls factors of graveness converge, among which it highlight for your importance, the respiratory form of the poliomelitis. Another factor of graveness is the participation of the cerebral trunk and still of the own encéfalo, in the process lesional.

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